Hi all, I'll be moving to Tokyo late September. Was looking at some Forex options, came across Th Cook. Their Borderless Multi-currency Forex card looks good, I just wanted to know how convenient is it to withdraw money and what charges are usually added. Borderless Forex Card Also, I've heard a lot about ATM's in Japan having restrictions. Is it easy to find a Thomas Cook compatible ATM ? They use MasterCard as their merchant. Mastercard ATM locator (broken for Japan) Thanks.
Message me via reddit or follow the link https://namae.me/20dollarcourse 1 2018 Client Getting Bot Blueprint 2 Adam Ackerman, John Galley - Crowdfunding Cash System 3 Adam Thomas - Dropshipping Accelerator 2018 4 Adrian Morrison – eCom Success Academy 2017 5 Adrian Morrison eCom Success Academy 2018 6 Alex Becker - H-Com 2020 (Updated) 7 Alex Fedotoff - 7 Figure Ecommerce Blueprint 8 Alex Schlinsky - Prospecting On Demand 9 Amiee Ball - Pay To Play 10 Andre Chaperon - Auto Responder 3.0 11 Anik Signal Facebook Ads Mastery 12 Anik Singal - Copywriting Academy 13 Anik Singal - FB Ad Academy 14 Anik Singal – Copywriting Academy 15 Anthony Groeper - The 100k Blueprint 16 Anthony Groeper – Viral Venum IG Mastery 17 Anton Kraly - Dropship Lifestyle 6.0 18 Arie Scherson - E-Commerce Inner Circle Program 19 Beau Crabill - Online Retail Mastery (Amazon FBA University) 20 Billy Gene - Clicks Into Customers 2.0 21 Billy Willson - 6 Figure Facebook Ads Agency 22 Bradley Riley - Social Media Marketing Academy 23 Chalene Johnson - 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Out of Niyo and Thomas Cook, which one is available in PG??
Hi!! Looking for some info about forex card companies. Which one out of these two- Thomas Cook and Niyo, is available in PG?? If so, which one providers better service there?? I tried to Google it but haven't found any good info.
Solution to international credit card decline in India
Hello, I am in the US and trying to buy a bus ticket for my upcoming trip in India. It keeps declining my credit card, so I looked in some forums and people are saying that international credit cards are no longer being accepted in India. Does anyone have an alternative that still works for my vacation? I definitely was not expecting this and am in kind of a panic. Will be looking into Googlepay later today. thank you
HR & Recruitment Business Opportunity in India | FranchiseBazar
https://preview.redd.it/c1bdzwleta581.png?width=1024&format=png&auto=webp&s=343b1e4814e43d23b31cb193335d4bfcdcd17297 HR is an integral part of the business and HR professionals are constantly evolving. With advances in technology and constant changes in policies, HR professionals in India need to go along with it. Often HR professionals are not part of the major decisions made by company leaders and CEOs. But these dynamics are changing rapidly in companies around the world. This is because, when human resources are synchronized with the company’s strategic elements, progress is rapidly tracked. When it comes to choosing a franchise, HR Consulting Franchise in India is a great choice of business opportunity. Recruitment is easy as well as difficult these days. Technology is getting your company name faster than ever. Social networks such as Internet job boards and LinkedIn can help you reach thousands of potential candidates for open positions. As your company is able to reach more potential employees, those opportunities can also see more job listings. You're fishing in the pond, but you are competing with more fishermen. We are here to answer all of your queries, You can find the Best Recruitment Franchises in India here. The world of work is changing. We are in the middle of focusing on the candidate-based job market from the client-based job market, which means that recruiters and HR teams need to take the latest approach in terms of talent gathering. The massive uprising of the coronavirus pandemic means candidates are in high need of recruitment consultants. Hence HR & Recruitment Business Opportunity in India would be a great choice of franchise business. Although the pandemic has served as a catalyst to prove the value of human resources, there is still plenty of room for people to improve their business acumen and enhance their reputation as valued partners. We have listed below some top HR franchise opportunities.
ABC Consultants Pvt Ltd
ABC Consultants Pvt Ltd is a leading Indian recruitment company based in New Delhi, India. The consultancy was founded in 1969. It is headquartered in New Delhi, India. Leading HR company desks in all major locations in India like Hyderabad, Mumbai, Kolkata, Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Pune, Chennai is among the highest HR companies in India. Leading HR company operating four businesses that specialize in a variety of hiring- ABC Consultants – Senior & middle management search & selection HeadHonchos – Online career portal HeadCount – Junior management levels Hiring flexibility – Recruitment Process Outsourcing solution
Quess corp is a top leading professional services provider in India, offering our extensive domain knowledge and future-ready digital platforms to increase customer productivity through outsourcing solutions. The company provides technology-enabled staffing and managed outsourcing services in sales & marketing, customer service, sales after service, back-office operations, manufacturing operations, facilities & security management, HR & F&A operations, IT & mobility services, etc. The company's passion for providing exceptional services fueled by proprietary digital platforms has cemented its reputation as the largest private-sector employer in India and the largest integrated business service provider in the country. The company is a professional service provider headquartered in Bangalore. It is a step-down subsidiary of Fairfax Financial Holdings Group, which is managed by Thomas Cook India, an Indian listed subsidiary. The company serves South America, North America, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia. Find more opportunities here : HR Recruitment Franchise in India Contact Us today to find out more Franchise Opportunity in India FranchiseBazar 309, Swiss Complex, 33, Race Course Rd, Madhava Nagar, Gandhi Nagar, Bengaluru, Karnataka 560001
The Dissidents - A Revision and Update of a [no longer Visible] 2019 Post, and a Call for Further List Additions and Updates.
The post below starts with the opening of a now removed post from 2019, but without the link that caused the removal, and with some revisions and updates to account for those dissidents who are sadly no longer with us, as well as the ones we lost due to shitlibism, Lesser Evilism and a host of other complications that accompany the ravages of TDS (see footnote2 below). As 2019 was rolling in I wanted to take a moment to recognize the men and women of the year, as well as the blogs and sites that had and continue to contribute moments of truth in a vast sea of shill, shrill, propaganda and lies in which our mainstream media and political commentariat class were immersed. The task of truth telling and authentic opinion making have only become harder in 2021 as the yoke of authoritarianism came down ever harder to censor, demonetize, disappear from search and even cancel all who would dissent from the "official talking points". I think it is fair to call these people “Dissidents”. Much as there were dissidents in totalitarian regimes of the past, be they fascist, communist or just dictatorial, the current plutocracy under which we live, is, for all practical matters not much better, even if superficially at least, there are still a few authentic voices that can be heard, if faintly. And whereas dissenting individuals are not sent to the Gulag or to internment camps (yet), they are consistently marginalized, sometimes vilified, often threatened, as their work is rarely featured on Mainstream outlets. In the past 2 years we have seen a major rise in censoring of platforms be they of the right or the left, including outright banning, removal from social media such as YouTube, Twitter, Instagram and yes, sometimes Reddit. Numerous writers, journalists and performers have have been "banished" to effective exile in places like RT, Sputnik, Al-Jazzerah or small forums, web sites, blogs or outlets hosted on foreign servers. Notably, several of the opinion writers and journalists who left - willingly or otherwise their previous perches, have found home on the Substack, where they can be directly supported by the reader community, at least for now. In some ways, I think Substack provides an outlet for alternative political and geopolitical commentary, not unlike the Samizdat - underground newsletters that kept some flow of free information circulating in the old Soviet Union, outside the official outlets. While the current "Dissident" writers and speakers are not quite underground, and can still be published and read in the open, we should bear in mind the strong possibility that worse is yet to come, as many of us worry that TPTB are planning to attack that very ability to be heard and seen - by us. I'd also note that these alternative voices - while quoted and circulated by a an increasing community of readers and listeners - still reach a relatively small audience, give or take a few popular presenters (such as Tucker Carlson). And while a sub like WoTB provides a great echo chamber, we should not live in the illusion that these sanity-promoting individuals we often cite here, have a truly wide distribution in the West. And even as we are trying to expand their reach, our adversaries - who are nothing less than the full power structure of the Oligarchy propped up by the Deep State - are scheming to shrink our independent thinking universe even further. as the very concept of free speech is under attack - especially across the entirety of the Anglo part of the Western world. Note also that this is not intended as a one-size-fits-all list, or one that even fits in a single box, including one named "progressive". Some writers/vloggers/twitterati come from more conservative directions, others from more liberal ones, but they generally share one key attribute, namely commitment to independent thought and speaking truth to power, whatever and wherever that power is found, even if it's a current or past favorite. We may not read or be able to listen to some or many and may not always agree with what these people say, taking umbrage at this or that “deviation” from a preferred outlook or policy. They each may suffer an occasional loss of nerve, their chosen platforms may not be to everyone's taste, or we may hold against them a sin of a past before they became "dissidents". But still, on the whole I believe the list below represents voices of sanity and often, reason, in the face of a deafening wall-to-wall propaganda. Personally I am grateful that though not many in number there are [still] enough of them to give us hope that not all is lost. The list, provided below in no particular order, is not meant to be a comprehensive one and I will update it as suggestions are made in comments. The Dissidents (Commentary, YouTube, shows): Julian Assange (even if currently silenced) Edward Snowden (in exile) Glenn Greenwald (Substack, previously with The Intercept) Bernhard (cf MoonofAlabama) Matt Taibbi (Substack, previously with the Rolling Stone) Caitlin Johnstone (Medium, web, Substack) Mav Blumenthal (The GrayZone) Ben Norton (TheGrayZone) Aaron mate (The GrayZone) Jimmy Dore Abby Martin Lee Camp (YouTube, can be seen on RT America) Oksana Boyco (Interviewer, Worlds Apart, seen on RT America) Alexander Mercouris (YouTube, The Duran) Chris Hedges (Truthdig and “On Contact”, RT) Paul Craig Roberts Ray McGovern John Pilger William Engdahl Phil Weiss (cf Mondoweiss) Norman Solomon Nathan Robinson (Current affairs) Jonathan Cook Rania Khalek Pepe Escobar (The Asia Times and The Saker) Alistaire Crooke Craig Murray Cassandra Fairbanks (the Gateway Pundit) Whitney Webb (Unlimited hangout, Rockfin) Adam Carter (and of course, Forensicator!) Elizabeth Vos (previously with Dissident media, now with Consortium News) Eric Weinstein (the Intellectual Dark Web) Ralph Nader Tucker Carlson (Fox - the only one on MSM!) Michael Tracy (Substack, Twitter, YouTube) James Corbett (YouTube, the Corbett Report) Richard Medhurst (YouTube, Substack, Twitter) Ron Placone Graham Elwood David Sirota (Twitter, Substack)
*Dropped from the list:*
Kyle Kulinsky (YouTube), Tim Black (YouTube), Mike Figueredo (YouTube, The humanist report), Jamarl Thomas (YouTube) *TBD (under consideration, feed-back please): Lee Fang (The Intercept) Noam Chomsky (great past contributions, not commenting much now. Called M4A "Candy"!)) Dissident Economists/Political Scientists/Scholars Richard Wolff Michael Hudson Yves Smith (cf. Naked Capitalism) Mark Blyth Tom Frank Yannis Varoufakis John Mearsheimer (new book "The Great Delusion") Steven Walt Robert Brenner Mohammad marandi (Univ of Tehran) Michael Parenti Adolph Reed John McWhorter Glenn Loury (see Bloggingheads.TV for their discussions) Dissident Blogs and Alternative News Outlets The Gray Zone Off-Guardian Mint news WSWS The Gateway Pundit Strategic Culture The Saker Consortium News Counterpunch Antiwar.com Naked capitalism Mondoweiss.net Black Agenda Report F.A.I.R The Unz review The Greanville Post The American Conservative Zero Hedge Common Dreams The MCSC Network (includes Niko House and Fiorella) The ghion Journal TBD - Dropped from the list for now (too mixed or too politics only?) Jacobin (except sometimes), The Hill (except sometimes), Truthout, The Nation (ho-ham), Truthdig (is it still in business?), To be cont'd.... Special mention to: Judicial Watch Wikileaks (and all who have been supporting it) Footnotes:
Note that everyone on the list is basically still with us. That's why some real dissidents - like Robert parry, Stephen Cohen and Justin Raymondo - are not on the list. Also, I kind of gave preference on this list to the ones who write and/or speak often about issues that take on the establishment but are not strictly US based intra/inter-party politics, and/or provide in depth analysis, including in areas that concern geopolitics, to which I am partial, personally. But by no means does it mean that many activists who mostly just tweet or others who are active through art and organizing are not among the ranks of dissidents, so perhaps another occasion will arise to do justice to the many who are out front even if they are not the most voluminous writers or speakers.
TDS is a seemingly incurable, highly infectious, prion-like disease affecting the human brain that is known to produce mad cow disease like symptoms wherein brains appear to turn into jelly and beating hearts into tom-tom war drums. There are no known vaccines, as of yet.
印网友评论：印度归国学子：印度可以从中国学到的经验 ZT by 学姐的头 on 2014-04-08
-------------译者：观棋柯烂-审核者：chen_lt------------ kshay Kumar, 25, knew his journey would be tough. But he thought he was prepared. Kshay Kumar, 25岁，他知道自己的旅途会很艰难，但他认为他已经做好了准备。 In 2012, after an engineering degree and a oneyear stint with a multinational, Kumar felt he needed a makeover. "I didn't want to be stuck with civil engineering all my life. I also wanted to see the world and explore new options," he recalls. Doing an MBA from a premier institute was on his mind. 2012年，在取得工程学位并为跨国公司服务了一年后，Kumar觉得他需要一个转变。“我不想被土木工程套牢一生。我也想看看这个世界，探索一下新的机会，”他回忆道。在一个高等学院读MBA的想法浮现在他的脑海里。 He did think of the Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs) and the Xavier School of Management, but the desire for global exposure pushed him to explore options overseas. Kumar settled for a oneyear post-graduate course at the Imperial University in the UK, which he financed via an education loan. "Visa rules and the bleak job market there did weigh on my mind. But I had a feeling I could manage it," he says. He had confidence in Imperial's good global ranking, its alumni network and his own hard work. 他也考虑过印度管理学院（IIM）和泽维尔管理学院，但是对于全球视野的渴望促使他探索海外的机会。Kumar接受了位于英国的帝国大学的一年期研究生课程，其资金来源为助学贷款。“英国的签证规则和惨淡的就业市场确实在我脑海中权衡过，但我有一种感觉，我一定能够应付得过来，”他说。因为帝国大学在全球的优秀排名、其校友关系网以及他自己的努力，他充满信心。 Kumar began his hunt for a job virtually from the day he landed in the UK. He studied hard to get good grades but worked even harder to find a good job. By tapping into networks of his alumni, friends and family, Kumar reckons he would have reached out to over 200 firms during that year. "It didn't work. My good grades made me eligible for plenty of jobs, but my non-European Indian passport was the problem," he shrugs. Kumar一来英国就开始寻找工作。他努力学习以取得好成绩，但更努力去寻找一份好工作。通过发掘他的校友、朋友和家庭的关系，Kumar估计在那年他接触了超过200家企业。“这没有用。我的好成绩让我满足了许多岗位的条件，但我非欧洲的印度护照是个问题，”他耸了耸肩。 Kumar moved back to India late last year and has just landed a job with a private equity firm. "All my plans have been delayed by five years," he says. Close to half his salary today goes in paying monthly instalments on his education loan. Kumar去年底回到了印度，在一家私人股权公司工作。“我的所有计划都被推迟了五年，”他说。他每月要用现在将近一半的薪水来偿还助学贷款。 -------------译者：图特腾-审核者：chen_lt------------
The World isn't Flat 世界不是平的 The West has a problem. Its economy is in a funk, not enough jobs are being created, cautious companies aren't hiring too many, and worried governments — from the US to the UK — are raising visa barriers for foreigners to work in their countries. 西方已经出现问题。它的经济陷入一片混乱，不能创造足够多的职位，谨慎的公司不会聘用过多的职员，焦虑不安的各国政府——从美国到英国——正在增加签证壁垒以阻止外国人在他们的国家工作。 Young Indians, who went overseas for education, are facing a tough time finding a job. Many like Kumar have returned home. And some are now casting the net wider — looking for jobs from the US to Hong Kong and Singapore — or settling for sub-optimal options. Rupa Chanda, professor, IIM-Bangalore, who has worked on reports on international student mobility, says visa and immigration is the biggest factor affecting Indian students' decisions. 海外求学的年轻印度人正在面临找工作的艰难时期。像Kumar一样，许多人已经回家。他们中一些人正在通过更大范围的求职网——从英国到香港、新加坡来寻找工作；或者妥协于较次的选择。印度管理学院（IIM）班加罗尔分校的Rupa Chanda教授曾在研究国际学生流动性的报告中指出，签证和移民政策是影响印度学生做出决定的最大因素。 The US, the UK and Australia — the three most popular destinations for Indians seeking global education — have seen the number of Indian students come down over the past few years (see Out of Favour?). Remember, many Indian students take hefty education loans to finance their studies abroad. While many would find decent jobs back in India that would not help much as these students need dollar salaries to comfortably service their loan. This is taking its toll. "Overseas education is costly. Many Indian students are doing a cost-benefit analysis to figure how to recoup their investments overseas and putting off their plans ," explains New York-based Rahul Choudaha, chief knowledge officer, World Education Services (WES), a non-profit organization that provides credential evaluations for international students planning to study or work in the US and Canada. 美国、英国、澳大利亚，印度人寻求全球教育的最火的三大目的地，已经发现印度学生数量在过去几年持续下降（或者三大目的地已经不受青睐？）。记住，许多印度学生都背负着高额的教育贷款来资助他们的海外求学。虽然回到印度他们都能找到体面的工作，但是这些都没有太大的帮助，因为学生们需要一份用美元支付的薪水来帮助他们更轻松的偿还贷款。这就是造成的影响。“海外教育非常昂贵，许多印度学生都正在进行成本效益分析，以找出如何收回其海外投资，推迟他们（去海外就读）的计划，” 坐落于纽约的世界教育服务中心的知识总监Rahul Choudaha解释道。 这一非营利性组织为准备在美国和加拿大学习或工作的国际学生提供认证评估。 But to be fully able to understand how this trend will play out, one must understand the backdrop. A big generational shift is taking place among the students looking for overseas education. Many of them now are India's liberalization children, who have grown up post-1991 and lived in an increasingly global world with fewer barriers. 但是要完全理解这种趋势是如何产生的，就必须要了解其背景。一个大的世代转变正发生在寻求海外教育的学生中间。如今的他们许多都是印度自由的一代，成长在1991年后，生活在障碍更少的全球化的今天。 So in many ways this is their first brush with a world with barriers. Many are also children of globetrotting well-paid senior corporate executives who think differently about education, exposure and investing in a world-class education. "These parents understand the long-term rewards of a world-class education. I see many of my friends taking their children to these top campuses after they pass out from school to give them a first-hand feel," says Hema Ravichandar, strategic HR expert and a former HR head of Infosys. 所以从许多方面来说，这是他们第一次面对来自世界的阻碍。他们中也有许多是环游世界的、对教育、经历以及投资世界级教育有着不同看法的高薪企业的高管们的小孩。 “这些父母明白世界一流教育的长期回报。我看到我的许多朋友带着他们的小孩去顶尖的校园，让小孩们领略这些高等学府给他们的切身感受，”战略人力资源管理专家、Infosys 公司前人力资源主管 Hema Ravichandar说道。 -------------译者：dragonilove-审核者：chen_lt-----------
Woes on Foreign Shores 身处海外的痛苦 Both of Ravichandar's children have studied overseas. Her daughter, Aditi, is doing her MBA from Wharton in the US and her son Nikhil, 22, completed his Bachelor's in economics from Warwick in the UK. Nikhil chose the UK over India because of the flexibility available in picking courses — he wanted to do economics with law which was impossible in India with its rigid course structures. "Education in India is not very research-driven and multicultural," he adds. Ravichandar'的两个孩子都已经在国外留学。她的女儿，Aditi正在美国的沃顿商学院读MBA而她22岁的儿子Nikhil已经在英国的华威大学完成了经济本科学习。Nikhil之所以选择英国而非印度是因为英国大学在课程选择上有更大的灵活性——他既想要修经济学又想要修法律，而这在具有严格课程结构的印度大学是不可能的。他还说，“在印度的教育并不是由研究来驱使的，也不够文化多元性”。 But during his stay there, the UK revoked the two-year work permit for foreign graduates. Thus he needed a firm job offer to stay on after graduation. This was difficult since he was particular about the kind of work. "I wanted a job in economic consulting," he says. Unable to get that he preferred to do a postgraduate programme instead. While he did not take any loan, for many of his classmates, who had taken a hefty education loan, things were difficult. 但是就当他在英国学习时，英国取消了留学生毕业后的两年工作签证，因此Nikhil需要一份工作从而能够在毕业后留在英国。由于他对工作的特殊要求这显得有些困难“我想要一份有关经济咨询的工作”Nikhil说。若不能获得这样的工作，Nikhil宁愿继续读研究生。由于Nikhil没有像他的同学那样申请沉重的助学贷款，事情开始变得困难了。 Now, Nikhil is back in India getting some interesting exposure at a few start-ups in Bangalore, India's Silicon Valley. He is contemplating a startup of his own. "This is the best time to take the risk and explore it," he says. 现在 Nikhil 已经回到了印度并且在印度的硅谷，班加罗尔与一些新兴企业进行了接触。他正在考虑自己创办一个公司。“这是最好的冒险和探索的时候”他说。 Across the Atlantic, Sujoyini Mandal, in her 20s, offers another peek into the odds that Indian students face overseas. After her graduation from Jadavpur University, Mandal went to Singapore for her postgrad and worked with a think-tank there. Life was good but since she had always yearned for a degree from a world-class university, she applied for a Master's at Harvard's Kennedy School. 穿越过大西洋，20岁的Sujoyini Mandal展现了印度学生在海外遭遇的另一面。在她从贾达普大学毕业之后，Mandal去新加坡念了研究生并且在一个智囊团工作。生活过得很惬意，但是由于她希望获得世界一流大学的学位，她申请了哈佛肯尼迪政治学院。 For two years, she deferred her admission as she did not get any financial aid. She saved some money and, with a bit of aid, finally took the plunge in 2011. Foreign students in her college face an education loan cap of $30,000 ($15,000 a year), she says, making things even more difficult Mandal started looking for a job when she graduated in May 2013. But mandates that fitted her needs and aspirations were not easy to come by. She did land a contract with the World Bank but that was short term, uncertain and had no medical cover. Last month Mandal finally landed a job with an investment bank. 两年来，由于Mandal没有获得任何经济援助，她一直在延迟入学时间。在存了一些钱并且一些援助之后她最终在2011年入学了。Mandal说，她所在学院的留学生面临30000美元（15000美元每年）的贷款限额，这使得情况变得更加困难。Mandal在2013年5月毕业后开始寻找工作。但是适合她的需求和期望的职位并不那么容易获得。她确实已经和世界银行签订了合约，但是那是短期的，有不确定性，也没有医疗保险。最终在上个月Mandal在一家投资银行找到了一份工作。 Despite such struggles, there are many reasons why the pursuit of overseas education among young Indians is unlikely to die down any time soon. 尽管面临这么多挣扎，但仍然有很多其他原因让印度学生想去海外留学，短期内这种趋势是不会消失的。 -------------译者：长太息兮-审核者：chen_lt------------
The Demographic Bulge 人口膨胀 Every year, around 800,000 Indian students reportedly go overseas for their education. This costs the country close to $15 billion of forex annually, estimates industry lobby Assocham. If students are going overseas for education, it's because India has a problem of both capacity and quality. The country has one of the world's largest education infrastructures: 600 universities and 34,000 colleges with 17 million students enrolled and 5 million students graduating every year. But India is also witnessing a demographic bulge — it has perhaps the world's largest young population. Experts estimate that some 100-million-odd students will seek higher education over the next decade. 据报道,每年大约有800000名印度学生出国留学,，据印度工商业联合会估计这将耗费每年近150亿美元的外汇。学生们出国留学是因为印度不管是在教育容量还是教育质量上都有问题。印度的教育基础设施是世界上最大的教育设施之一，600所大学和34,000学院每年接受1700多万新生并输出500多万毕业生，但是我们也正见证着印度人口的爆炸性增长，印度或许有着世界上最庞大的年轻人群，专家估计在未来十年里，将有一亿多的学生寻求更高的教育。The capacity problem is compounded by the quality issue. About 70% of the capacity in India is of poor standards. At the other end of the spectrum, competitive intensity at the premier colleges is so stiff that it is often easier for bright students to get admission in Ivy League colleges in the US and the UK than in the IITs, IIMs and even top colleges in Delhi University. 教育能力和教育质量上的问题是相互关联的。大约70%的印度教育处较低的水准，而另一方面，印度一流学院的竞争激烈且死板，以至于对聪明的学生来说，进入美国或英国的常春藤大学要比进入印度理工学院、印度管理学院、甚至德里大学里好的学院都容易得多。 All this coincides with the rise of India's aspirational upper middle class. Over the past two decades, many first-generation Indians have risen up the corporate hierarchy and are financially well-off. These welltravelled, financially stable corporate executives desire the best for their children. "They are looking for the best educational experience. They know it is a life-long asset. Indian premier colleges do not have the capacity and are very rigid," says TV Mohandas Pai, chairman, Manipal Global Education. Pai's son studied at Stanford University in the US and now works for a start-up in Silicon Valley. 这些现象与印度上层中产阶级不断上涨的雄心壮志密切相关。在过去的二十几年里，许多第一代移民创立了自己的事业，相当富裕。这些经济稳定，见多识广的公司高管希望把最好的东西给予他们的子女。Manipal全球教育主席 Mohandas Pai说他们在为孩子寻找一流的教育，这是孩子一生的财富，印度的一流大学不能给予这些而且这些大学要求过于死板。他的孩子曾在美国斯坦福大学学习，现在在硅谷工作。 This aligns well with the global trend of rising international mobility of students. According to Institute of International Education (IIE), since 2000, the number of students leaving home in pursuit of higher education has increased by 65%, totalling about 4.3 million students globally. What is more interesting is that the share of students from the developing countries in this pie is rising — it moved up from 54.8% to 69% between 1999 and 2009. 这个现象与世界范围内学生国际间流动增强的趋势是一致的。IIE的研究表明，自2000年以来，学生为了获得更高的教育出国的数量增加了65%。全球总计约430万。更有趣的现象是发展中国家的学生所占的份额正在增加---1999年到2009年间从54.8%增加到69%. -------------译者：*河蟹*员-审核者：chen_lt------------
India vs China 印度对比中国 Not surprisingly, the world's two most populous and powerful emerging countries — China and India — send the largest number of students overseas. But China has rapidly shifted gears to overtake India. 让人毫不惊讶的是，作为世界上人口最多、经济发展最快速的这两个国家向海外派遣了最多数量的留学生。但这方面中国很快就超越了印度。 Consider what's taking place in the US. In 2000-01, India topped the list of international students by country, with 66,836 against China's 63,211. But by 2009-10 China had overtaken India. In 2012-13, China sent 236,000 students; India was nudging the 97,000 mark. While the number of Chinese students has been growing in double digits of late, that of Indian students has been sliding. To understand why that is happening, it is important to analyze the profile of students going overseas from both the countries. 2000-2001年，美国的外国留学生中印度学生是最多的，66836人，而中国学生为63211人。但是在2009-2010年时，中国超越了印度。2012-2013年，中国向美国派遣的留学生 已经达到236000人；而印度才逼近97000人。近来，中国留学生人数呈两位数增长，而印度方面则一直在下降。要想了解这其中的缘由，就有必要分析一下两个国家的留学生的一些基本情况。 Chinese students going to the US are evenly split between undergraduate (40%) and postgraduate programmes (44%). But Indian students are heavily skewed towards postgraduate programmes (55%) with just 13% at the undergraduate level. Indian students are also unique as over 60% are in the STEM (science, technology, engineering, maths) category. Bear in mind that historically, postgraduate and STEM programmes offer more financial support than undergraduate and non-STEM programmes. 中国留学生去主要去美国接受本科教育项目（40%）和研究生教育项目（44%），比较均衡。而印度学生去美国主要接受研究生教育（55%），本科教育只占13%。60%的印度留学生学的是理工科。从历史上来说，研究生以及理工科教育项目比起本科教育项目和非理工科教育项目在资金上会给留学生提供更多的帮助。 "The decline in Indian students is directly related to the 'Strivers' , who have been putting their plans on hold due to increasing cost of studying abroad which in turn was triggered by economic uncertainty and currency devaluation," says Choudaha. “印度留学生的下降与”奋勉族“群体相关（根据全球教育服务处的研究，指的是资源少的发奋者），这个群体由于海外留学费用的增加导致他们搁置了自己的留学计划，而经济不稳定以及货币贬值引发了海外留学成本的提高，”Choudaha说。 A majority of Indian students arrives at the Master's level and funds education by taking loans as financial aid from colleges has dried up. So, while the majority of Indian students go for education loans, Chinese students are supported by their families. According to a research by WES, 47% of Indian respondents report loans as one of the primary sources of funding as compared with only 3% of Chinese. 大部分的印度海外留学生取得了硕士文凭，但由于学校助学金的萎缩，他们不得不通过贷款来完成学业。所以大部分印度学生是通过贷款来完成学业的，而中国留学生则靠父母支持。根据全球教育服务处的一项研究，47%的印度回馈者说贷款是他们完成学业的主要手段之一，而这么说的中国学生只占3%。 Chinese students, in contrast, are "explorers" (experience seekers), says Choudaha. Often the only-child of financially well-off parents, they have the financial wherewithal to study abroad and are under less pressure to find a job there. But change may be afoot. Some Indian students could make the transition from 'strivers' to 'explorers' and Choudaha expects more and more Indian students — most of them children of well-off senior executives — to go overseas at the undergraduate level. Not so dependent on financial aid, he also sees many more Indians exploring new interdisciplinary fields, beyond STEM. Even in the STEM category, experts feel that Indian students will be the biggest beneficiary as the Obama government eases rules for this critical segment in future. 对比来说，中国学生是“探险族”（追求体验一族），Choudaha如是说。通常是富裕家庭的独生子女，所以留学的钱不用愁，也没有太大的压力去找工作。但情况可能会有所改变，一些印度学生有可能从“奋勉族”向“探险族”转变，Choudaha预测说将有越来越多大多来自印度富裕家庭的学生到海外接受本科教育。他们不会太依靠助学金。他还说越来越多印度学生除了理工科外还涉及了新的跨学科教育领域。即使是在理工科类别中，专家们认为随着奥巴马在未来放宽这个类别的规定，印度学生将成为最大的受益者。 -------------译者：thekstyy-审核者：chen_lt------------ Lessons from China 中国榜样 Two decades back, China faced problems similar to those India faces today — its higher education had both capacity and quality issues. Since then China has worked hard to upgrade its educational institutions. It has two programmes — Project 211 and Project 985. The former aims to make 100 Chinese universities world class in the 21st century; this will help China churn out world-class trained professionals to push economic growth. These universities are expected to set national standards for education quality that can be replicated by others. 二十年前，中国面对的问题如同今日印度面对的问题——高等教育在质和量上的不足。从那时起中国努力升级发展他们的教育机构，其中包涵了211工程和985工程。前者旨在创造21世纪的世界级名牌大学，这会快速培养出大批的专业人才，有效推动其经济发展。这些大学被期望于发展可供借鉴的全国性教育质量标准。 Project 985 started more than a decade back and is an attempt to build China's own Ivy League colleges in the 21st century. In the first phase the project included nine universities. The second phase, launched in 2004, includes 40-odd universities. The projects have been backed by significant investments. According to a New York Times report, China is investing $250 billion a year in human capital. 985工程开始于十多年前，意在创造21世纪中国自己的常春藤校盟。工程第一阶段包括了九所大学。第二阶段在2004年启动，新增四十所大学。这项工程受到了大量投资支持。据纽约时报报道，中国为人力资源发展一年就投资了2500亿美元。 The dragon country's efforts are now bearing fruit. Many Chinese universities are climbing up the global ranks. Two Chinese universities have made it to the top global 50 in the Times Higher Education report. India has none. In the top 500, 16 Chinese universities make the cut against seven from India. Mobile international students are taking note. A decade back, China was hardly on anybody's radar. 龙之国度的努力现在已经开花结果，很多中国大学都跻身入全球排行榜。泰晤士报高等教育刊报说两所中国大学成功挤入全球最佳大学前五十名。印度一个名额都没。在全球前五百名大学中中国有16所，完胜印度的七所。国际学生们都注意到了中国的巨大变化，而十年前，中国大学几乎不被关注。 Today, it is the third largest education hub in the world after the US and the UK with 3.28 lakh international students, according to IIE. By 2020, it hopes to host 500,000 international students. Even Singapore is targeting 1.5 lakh foreign students by 2015. In contrast, India was home to just 27,000 international students in 2012. China is aware that to push innovation and realize its economic ambitions, it must be able to attract top talent — in its colleges and workforce. 据国际教育学会数据，现在中国拥有32万八千的外国学生，是仅次于美国和英国的世界第三大教育中心。到2020年，这一数字可能变为50万。即使小国新加坡也有在2015年达到15万外国留学生的目标，而印度在2012年却只有2万七千外国留学生。中国已经意识到，若要推动创新和实现他的经济腾飞，就必须吸引来高端人才——在大学和职场上。 Also, in virtually every key statistic, the world today is seeing a shift from the West to the East. From economic GDP to consumption power, MNCs across the board are looking at Asia and the world's two most populous nations. This shift is happening demographically too. But in the education space, the West still dominates. 从每一个关键数据都能看出，实际上世界中心正从西方转移到东方。亚洲国家，特别是世界两大人口大国国民生产总值和消费能力的提升吸引了所有跨国公司的目光。这种转变和人口有关，但是在教育方面依然是西方占主导地位。 Of the world's top 100 universities, 46 are in the US. Seven of top 10 universities are in the US. Asia has just 11 in the top 100. "It is difficult to replicate what US has done with its universities to 2emerge as an innovation hub," says Pai. So, ambitious and aspirational Indians will continue to look overseas for education. But if India has to realize its potential, it must invest heavily in building world-class institutions in the country — the China way. 世界前100名大学有46所位于美国，前十名有七所是美国的。亚洲在全球大学前一百名中只有11所。“美国通过大学而转变为创新中心的成功是很难被复制的，”派说。因此，有理想有抱负的印度人会继续寻求海外教育机会。如果印度想发掘自身潜力，他必须学中国那样，大力投资于建设世界一流的国内大学。
); background-color: rgb(243, 241, 242); color: rgb(255, 255, 255); background-repeat: no-repeat no-repeat; ">评论翻译: -------------译者：长太息兮-审核者：chen_lt------------ Skhey Mobile (Gurgaon) 22 Hours ago Foreign degree is no more a guarantee card for success. 外国文凭已经不再是成功的保证了 Neil M (pune-mumbai) 22 Hours ago Finding a good university and a good course is important. I know many guys select short courses which are not recognized world wide and specially in India find it difficult to get a job. Also, dream america is not true for everyone. All the best to seekers. 找一个好的大学和好的专业是十分重要的，据我了解一些人选择了一些短期的课程，这些课程并不在世界范围内被承认尤其在印度会发现很难找到一份工作。并不是每个人的美国梦都能实现。祝追梦者好运 Rajesh Thambala (Hyderabad, India) 23 Hours ago Very informative article. 十分有意义的文章 Partha (Bangalore) 1 Day ago Nice Article. Much Appreciated 很好的文章，表示赞赏 SAMAD (India) 1 Day ago right choice.... 正确的选择 Tempcool Mukhopadhyay (India) 1 Day ago An excellent article. Appropriate and very well timed. Issue lies with inadequate job creation in India compared to passing out rate and all sorts of reservation quota for the "privileged" groups. Also unscrupulous marketing by planting misleading information by the education institutes of developed countries and their Indian agents. 一篇很棒的文章。写的正是时候。问题在于在印度创造的就业不足，而毕业生却不断增加，而且“特权”团体得到各种各样的预订配额。另一方面，发达国家的教育机构和其印度代理通过误导性的信息来是肆无忌惮的推销自己的教育产品。 Guramandeep Singh (Mexico) 1 Day ago 67 years after Independence, we are still stuck to providing reservation quotas in institutes of higher education. The recent Supreme Court order puts 27% reservation for OBCs which along with that of SCs and STs brings the total reservation to 49.5%. Here is the breakup of IIM-A seats: General 182 Non creamy OBC 104 ---- Schedule caste 58 ---- Schedule tribe 29 ---- Differently-abled 12 ---- Total 385 --- I have read various comments touching upon patriotism towards India to youngsters being crazy and the need to enlighten them. Reservation for a certain group is discrimination against the other groups. So ask yourself, is our system really fair? Should we not be looking at this objectively and trying to solve the root cause of the problem instead of commenting upon the phenomenon which is a result of a messed up education system at the behest of corrupt politicians? 已经独立67年了，我们的高等教育学院仍在坚持预定配额制度。最近，最高法院颁发命令27%的份额给“其他落后阶级”（OBC），同时给予“设籍种姓”（SC）和“设籍部落”（ST）一定的配额，所以总共就达到了49.5%的配额。对某一群体的配额预留其实是对其他群体的歧视。因此，扪心自问，我们的教育系统真的公平吗？相比于仅仅讨论因为腐败政客的命令导致的混乱教育系统的各种表象，难道我们不应该客观的看待并从根本上解决这些问题吗？ （译著：印度的预留机制指的是将政府机构中一定数量的空缺席位留给那些落后和代表人数不足的团体（主要通过种姓和部落来定义）的成员。相当于以配额为基础的平权运动。“其他落后阶级”、“设籍种姓”以及“设籍部落”是这项机制的主要受益者。 -------------译者：长太息兮-审核者：chen_lt------------ ILA (Chennai) replies to Guramandeep Singh 1 Day ago Dear Learned Singh. This article has nothing to do with reservation. Reservation is about affirmative action (in US parlance). Trying to give some sort of equal opportunity to people (98%) who were subjugated, denied education, and exploited by so called Forward Castes in India who constitute only 2% of the total population for millenium. This reservation is in vogue for only 60 years how can this equation be achieved in such a short span of time. Now the Forward Castes are slowly waking up and cramming for their share in the available piece of cake. If heat is felt for this itself then what should the subjugated feel for having been so for a millenium in the name of MANU SMRITIs laws? People who believe so are as you had rightly (?) pointed out are HYPROCRITS and prisoners of their own conscience. 亲爱的Learned Singh，这篇文章没有提到预留制度，预留制度是一种平权运动（用美国的说法）。它可以给被占2%总人口的高等种姓剥削了上千年，没有机会接受教育，占人口98%的低种姓人一定程度的公平机会，预留制度刚才实施了60年，在这么短的时间内绝对公平是很难实现的。现在高种姓的人正慢慢觉醒，开始狼吞虎咽的享用他们的份额。如果有些人对这种制度反应都如此激烈，那么在《摩奴法典》教义下过了上千年的被征服者又应该做何感想？反对这种平权运动的人都是伪君子和不道德的人。 RM (MN) replies to ILA 9 Hours ago Excuses, excuses. Sixty years after Independence you're still making excuses for a quota system that has made Indian education into a pile of rubbish. 呵呵，独立已经60年了，你还在为把印度的教育弄得一团糟的预留制度找借口 Athena (London) 1 Day ago It is Imperial College and not Imperial University. Perhaps ET must invest in better human capital! 那是帝国理工学院而不是帝国大学，或许《经济时报》应该加大人力资源投入了。 (Hyderabad) 1 Day ago Same thing happened with me as well like akshay kumar. I thought i am reading my story. 我和阿克夏·库马的经历很相似，我还以为在读我自己的故事呢 Nihar (Mumbai) 1 Day ago It completely depends on which institution a person is studying in abroad. It is not so that somebody got a degree in a well recognized institution in foreign and unable to get a job in India. So I request "The Economic Times" to provide a proper interpretation to the reader. 这完全取决于个人在国外的哪个机构学习。一个人得到国外著名机构的学位，却不能在印度找到工作 ，这是不可能的。所以我要求经济时报对给读者一个合理的解释。 kshi S (Bhopal) 1 Day ago coming to US was the worst decision of my life 来美国是我一生最错误的决定 -------------译者：旧西圆-审核者：chen_lt------------ B Venky Venky (Bangalore) 1 Day ago Very informative article. To have world class universities in India, the government should get out of the way. The quota raj in higher education has to stop. More and more private funds has to be garnered towards higher education by giving tax sops. But all this remains in the realm of fiction at the moment. 非常有教育意义的文章。印度如果想要建设世界一流的大学，政府就不能介入。高等教育的配额制度必须终止。通过给予税收方面的优惠，吸引更多的私人基金投入到高等教育中来。不过到现在为止，这还还都是痴人说梦。 ketan m (mumbai) 1 Day ago study there, work here. sounds great! 出国留学，回国工作，看上去不错！ thomas (india) 1 Day ago Yes, every Indian should go overseas for education - build up net work..learn how other s think..their style-quality etc. come back and start self employed business ... it will flourish. take example from china who are into A to Z of business and industries ,they make impossible happen...of course duly and completely supported by their govt.. 我同意，每个印度人都应该去国外接受教育，这样可以建立人际关系，了解别人的思维模式，健康的生活习惯等，然后再回国创业，这样国家才能繁荣。就像中国一样，在各行各业里他们都创造了不可能的奇迹，当然，也离不开政府部门适时的大力支持。 Saswata mandal (kolkata) 1 Day ago still every good student wants to go abroad.. why is it like that?? 为什么所有的好学生仍然都想着出国？ Nanda Kumar (Chennai, Tamil Nadu) replies to Saswata mandal 1 Day ago ET pointed it out already..Global Exposure! and Farther mountains always seem smoother :) 金融时报已经指出来了。。。他们希望能在国际上露脸！因为外国的月亮比较圆 ：） Anupam (Bangalore) replies to Saswata mandal 1 Day ago Quick money 想赚快钱呗 Mumbaikar (Mumbai) 1 Day ago It's not entirely the kids fault - some ambitious parents push out the kids too - 'we don't think there is a future here', they say. Now, some are stuck abroad and need to return home, as countries are on an economic downturn and/or are looking more inward now, . Complicated situation - but opportunities are here too, if you want to grab them. Not everything here is as bad as you may think. 不完全是孩子们的错，一部分雄心勃勃的家长们把他们的孩子推到了火山口。家长们总会说：”我们在这看不到未来。”现在，由于外国经济的不景气以及现在他们更看重本土的学生，留学生在国外没出路，所以只能回国。情况很复杂，但是如果你想要，国内同样有机会。国内情况并非你想象的那么糟糕。 Bharath Selvan Sukumaran (Chennai) 1 Day ago Good news for India. Let their knowledge be used for Indians in India 对印度来说是个好消息。他们学成之后可以回来造福印度人民。 jgsemig (Delhi110007) 2 Days ago what about large numbers of foreign students studying in India? How could IIM-B professor be so insensitive? In a global world does this mean that Indian educational Institutions have already thrown in their towels? Does it also mean that Universities like SAARC and others have no futures? 也有很多外国学生在印度留学啊。 为什么印度管理学院班加罗尔分校(Indian Institutes of Management) 的教授们这么愚钝。从全球范围来看，是不是这就意味着印度的教育机构已经宣布投降了？类似南亚区域合作联盟（South Asian Association For Regional Cooperation）这类的学校就没有前途了吗？ -------------译者：长太息兮-审核者：chen_lt------------ Sriram B (Bharat) 2 Days ago Learn Globally and be back to improve India. Just as they say wait till the last ball is bowled in a cricket frenzy country; do not lose hope till you have tried your hands on what you want to transform the country into. 出国深造回来为祖国效力，在这个痴迷于板球运动的国家里，就像人们所说的不到最后一球都不能言败；在尝试做一些让我们的国家变得更好地事情之前，也不要放弃希望。 Ajay Kumar (NYC) 2 Days ago Only the people who have earned admissions into Indian Universities based on reservations, face problems studying abroad, as they are looking for concessions always. People who have earned admissions throughout based on their capability and knowledge, do not face any problem. Such students do not come back. 只有那些依靠配额进入印度大学的人在出国留学学习时会面临问题，因为他们一直在寻求被特殊对待。而依靠自己能力和知识进入大学的人不会面临这些问题。这些学生也不会回国的 Ayush Jha (NOIDA) 2 Days ago Study in the US(OUT OF INTEREST in the field and/or spectrum, NOT parental pressure/peer pressure) , Work to repay the loans & then do your own startup in India. All the best :) 在美国学习（自己兴趣使然，而不是受到父母或者同龄人的压力），工作付清借款，然后在印度开始自己的事业，祝好运 ：） Mukesh Mishra (Haridwar) 2 Days ago It didn't work. My good grades made me eligible for plenty of jobs, but my non-European Indian passport was the problem," he shrugs. 他耸耸肩说：“没用的，我的成绩足够好让我可以得到很多工作，但是我的非欧洲的印度护照才是问题的关键。” Ashwani Kaushal (New Delhi) 2 Days ago righly said, getting an addmission in DU colleages are like dreaming in day time.... it is always good to go abroad and get certification and return back... but once the indian student get a better envoironment and facility abroad why they come back to corrupt indian culture, only few with family business background will come to share the same plateform with their parental company ....shamful for Indian corruption 说得对，要想进入德里大学无异于白日做梦。出国留学获得学位然后回印度总归是好的，但是，既然印度学生在国外有更好的环境和设施，他们怎么会回到腐败的印度呢，只有很少一部分有家族企业背景的人回国继承父母的产业，对印度的腐败感到羞愧。 Parthipan K (Chennai) 2 Days ago I agree with the fact that Indian Universities are not flexible. But intelligent students can acquire knowledge of any subjects of their own. So they should not blame Indian Universities. More over, not all institutes in abroad are of high standards. Even in Ivy schools, the standards are coming down like our IITs. My opinion is that if one works hard in Indian top universities, they can acquire global standards. Also all the premier institutes in US are putting their course material in the web and hence, by going thru them one can acquire high knowledge. 我同意印度的大学不够灵活。但是聪明的学生可以靠自己得到任何学科的知识。所以他们不应该抱怨印度的大学。另外，并不是所有的外国机构都有很高的水准，甚至常春藤大学也正下降到印度理工学院的水准。我想说的是，如果一个人在印度一流大学里足够努力，那么他可以达到世界级的水准。另外美国一些著名大学把他们的课程放在网上，因此通过网上课程我们可以得到尖端的知识。
Any suggestions for Forex cards for Student coming from India ?
Hello, I'm an Indian student joining GaTech this Fall and I was reading up on my options for getting a Forex card. Roght now the most viable options look like Thomas Cook and HDFC. I wanted discuss here regarding your opinions and experience regarding the same. Thanks and regards!
A cautionary tale for not getting carried away by hype! The average return in April for the top 10 most discussed stocks of March was -13%. Only 3 out of the 10 made a positive return! :snoo_feelsgoodman: General Discussion :disscusion: Comments || Link
It’s time for the delayed release of MAME 0.210, marking the end of May. This month, we’ve got lots of fixes for issues with supported systems, as well as some interesting additions. Newly added hand-held and tabletop games include Tronica’s Shuttle Voyage and Space Rescue, Mattel’s Computer Chess, and Parker Brothers’ Talking Baseball and Talking Football. On the arcade side, we’ve added high-level emulation of Gradius on Bubble System hardware and a prototype of the Neo Geo game Viewpoint. For this release, Jack Li has contributed an auto-fire plugin, providing additional functionality over the built-in auto-fire feature. A number of systems have had been promoted to working, or had critical issues fixed, including the Heathkit H8, Lola 8A, COSMAC Microkit, the Soviet PC clone EC-1840, Zorba, and COMX 35. MMU issues affecting Apollo and Mac operating systems have been addressed. Other notable improvements include star field emulation in Tutankham, further progress on SGI emulation, Sega Saturn video improvements, write support for the CoCo OS-9 disk image format, and preliminary emulation for MP3 audio on Konami System 573 games. There are lots of software list additions this month. Possibly most notable is the first dump of a Hanimex Pencil II cartridge, thanks to the silicium.org team. Another batch of cleanly cracked and original Apple II software has been added, along with more ZX Spectrum +3 software, and a number of Colour Genie cassette titles. That’s all we’ve got space for here, but there are lots more bug fixes, alternate versions of supported arcade games, and general code quality improvements. As always, you can get the source and Windows binary packages from the download page.
MAMETesters Bugs Fixed
02932: [Graphics] (tutankhm.cpp) tutankhm, tutankhms: Background stars are missing in attract mode. (Couriersud)
cgenie_cass: Abenteuerland, Adressdatei II, Africa, Ballon, Basic-Packer 2.13 (alternate), Benchmark Test, Botschaft, Brücke, Bumm Bumm, CIA-Agent, Cave Man, Charset, Chess Machine, Crazy Chaser, Deathstar, Deathtrap, Defender, Der Flohwalzer, Dez-Hex, Die Juwelen des Grafen Dracula, Die Physik des Transistors, Disastrous Villa, EBASIC (32k version), Editor fuer definierbare Zeichen, Empire, ExReversic, Extended Copy, Extra-Basic, Fast Food, Genie I II / TRS 80 Cassettenlader, Gorilla, Hektik (alternate), Horror Castle, House of Death, Joker Poker, King, Kniffel, Labyrinth of Fear, Las Vergas Spiel-Automat, Länder-Quiz, Madtree, Mord im Zeppelin, Mysterious Tavern, NODOS 80, Nato Morsing Standard Code, Peng, Primzahlsuche, Real-Compiler, Santa Paravia und Fuimaccio, Schiff des Grauens, Schnick Schnack Schnuck, Screen Editor (incl. Adventure screen), Shift Transformation, Sprite-Editor, Tape-Edit, Trash-Man, Utilities Package Ver. 2.0, Wurm, Zalaga [Dirk Best]
ibm5170: The Final ChessCard [hap]
neogeo: Viewpoint (prototype) [Brian Hargrove]
ngpc: Rockman - Battle & Fighters (Jpn, Demo), Sonic the Hedgehog - Pocket Adventure (World, Oct 22 1999 Prototype) [The Hidden Palace]
pcw: CP/M Plus v1.4 (Swe) work copy [Edström]
pencil2: Treasure Hunt / Le Plongeur a la Recherche du Tresor [silicium.org, David Viens]
1943, 3D Pool, 6-Pak Vol 1, The Alkatraz Protection System v 2.2, Answer Back Factfile 500 - General Science, Arcade Muscle, Ball Breaker, Bionic Commando, Chart Attack, Crack Down (Spa), DICE v2.0, Fun School 4 For The Under-5s, G1WVN ZX Pak Term v3.0 Beta Test, Granny's Garden, Hercules - Slayer Of The Damned, Judge Dredd, Lords Of Chaos Expansion Kit One, Lords Of Chaos Expansion Kit One (alt), M3 Unlock, Mercs, Motor Massacre, Navy SEALs, Obliterator (alt), Outcast, Outlet issue 058, Outlet issue 063, Outlet issue 075, Outlet issue 076, Outlet issue 078, Outlet issue 085, Outlet issue 117, Pirate, Platinum, Puffy's Saga, Rock Star Ate My Hamster, Shoot-Out, Skate Crazy, Skate or Die, The Spanish Tutor, The Star Wars Trilogy, Starship Quest + Helvera - Mistress of the Park, Strider, The Sunflower Number Show, Switchblade, SWIV, Tiger Road, Tops and Tails, Ultimate Play The Game: The Collected Works, Winners [Antonio M, Fede Jerez, Gorski, Jaime González Soriano, José Manuel, Marino Arribas, Metalbrain, robcfg, Simon Owen, Syx, Zup, TZX Vault, ICEknight]
LC-10 Colour Screen printer v 1.1 (+2a/+3) [Guy Bearman, ICEknight]
vsmile_cart: The Batman - Gotham City Rescue (UK), Disney Aladdin - Il magico mondo di Aladdin (Italy), Disney Topolino - Le Magiche Avventure di Topolino (Italy), Disney's Cinderella - Cinderella's Magic Wishes (UK), Disney's The Little Mermaid - Ariel's Majestic Journey (UK), Disney/Pixar Cars - Rev It Up in Radiator Springs (UK), Disney/Pixar Toy Story 2 - Operation-Rescue Woody! (UK), DreamWorks Shrek - Het Verhaal Van Draakje (Netherlands), Noddy - Detective for a Day (UK), Spider-Man & Friends - Missioni Segrete (Italy), Thomas & Friends - Engines Working Together (UK), Winnie the Pooh e la caccia al miele (Italy) [Walter Agazzi]
Software list items promoted to working
c64_cart: The Final ChessCard (Ger, v0.9/v1.0) [hap]
gameboy: Game Boy Test Cartridge (Euro, USA) [ClawGrip]
icanguit: Barbie Guitar Party (K9901), Rock 101 (K9906) [Sean Riddle, David Haywood]
leapfrog_leappad_cart: Disney Princess - Princess Stories (UK), Disney's Pooh Gets Stuck (UK), Leap 1 - Reading - Cartoon Network Scooby-Doo! and the Disappearing Donuts (UK), Richard Scarry's Best Little Word Book Ever! (UK), Sed de Saber - Libro 1 - Spanish as a second Language Edition (UK), Sed de Saber - Libro 2 - Spanish as a second Language Edition (UK), Sed de Saber - Libro 3 - Spanish as a second Language Edition (UK), Sed de Saber - Libro 4 - Spanish as a second Language Edition (UK), Sed de Saber - Libro 5 - Spanish as a second Language Edition (UK), Sed de Saber - Libro 6 - Spanish as a second Language Edition (UK), Toy Story 2 (UK) [TeamEurope]
vsmile_cart: Bob The Builder - Bob's Busy Day (UK), DreamWorks Shrek the Third - Arthur's School Day Adventure (UK), Scooby-Doo! - Funland Frenzy (UK), Scooby-Doo! - Funland Frenzy (UK, Rev. 1?), Thomas & Friends - Engines Working Together (UK, Rev. 1?) [Walter Agazzi]
Added very preliminary Intel 82355 bus master interfaces controller device. [AJR]
miniboy7: Fixed lamp blinking. [AJR]
ti89, ti89t, ti92p, v200: Corrected Flash memory type and size. [AJR]
unidasm: Allow hexadecimal values for -skip with 0x prefix. [AJR]
m68000: Read the initial SP and PC from memory after rather than during machine reset time. [AJR]
Removes the need for many drivers to reset the CPU an extra time to load the correct vector.
z100 improvements: [AJR]
Render video through CRTC instead of working around it by caching registers, and map video RAM using PROM module.
Added 8253 timer and associated interrupt, cursor, video interrupt, and Centronics port.
Converted keyboard to low-level emulation, and added keyboard click/beep sound.
Corrected numerous clocks.
m68705: Don’t register debug state entries for non-existent port latches and direction registers. [AJR]
Added Adaptec AIC-565 device. [AJR]
Added preliminary emulation of Toshiba T6963C and related LCD controllers [AJR]
bmcbowl: Added missing video-related interrupt, and re-guessed VIA clock. [AJR]
5clown: Documented how to access the hidden settings table. [AJR]
pk8020.cpp updates: [AJR]
Emulated programmable logic device used for banked address decoding.
Improved serial port/USART hookup, added save state support.
The "missing part of the Gucci history" from "The House of Gucci" book; or, how Guccis became involved in business
This is a follow-up to my earlier post here about how Maurizio Gucci - played by Adam Driver in The House of Gucci - sold the Gucci coat-of-arms, and about the royalist/monarchist leanings of the Gucci family as a whole. When researching why the Gucci family - and, in particular, patriarch Guccio Gucci, grandfather of Maurizio Gucci - were so royalist/monarchist in their sympathies, I also came across a big, unanswered question from the book: "How and why did Guccio Gucci found the Gucci brand and company to begin with?" Unfortunately, little-if-anything is known about the early life - and motivations - of Guccio Gucci, Maurizio's grandfather. This has led even the Gucci family themselves to debate, speculate, and argue over Guccio's exact origins, with the men - headed by Aldo Gucci, Guccio's son - in one camp; and the women - headed by Grimalda Gucci, Guccio's daughter - in the other. Aldo, who became Guccio's primary heir after the patriarch's death, put forth a narrative that Guccio was of noble descent, with his ancestor being Giacinto Gucci, a member of the Florentine nobility. However, Grimalda Gucci - Aldo's sister - disputed this, saying that Guccio Gucci came from poor parents, and a more humble background. This family dispute, too, is documented in Sara Gay Forden's book, The House of Gucci. In this post, I wanted to delve into Italian history, as well as which Gucci family member - Aldo, or Grimalda - was more correct. We do know a few key details about Guccio Gucci. He was a big family man; that he worked for several companies across different-but-related business industries, including the Savoy Hotel (hospitality/hotelier); Compagnie des Wagons-Lits (railroads/trains); and Franzi (upscale handbags and luggage); and, as explored in my earlier linked post, he especially catered to an upscale, noble, and even royal clientele. Part I: Italian Unification, Unrest, and Exodus We also know that Guccio Gucci was born in Florence, Tuscany on 26 March 1881, during the reign of King Umberto I, of the House of Savoy, in the unified Kingdom of Italy). Guccio was the son of Tuscan parents: Gabriello Gucci, a leather craftsman from San Miniato - about a 1-hour drive from Florence today, traditionally under Florentine rule - and Elena Santini, from Lastra a Signa in Florence. Around the time Guccio Gucci was born, Italy was in a major state of political, socio-economic, and military upheaval. As per one source, Italian unification had finally been achieved in 1871, but it was not without its troubles. Earthquakes, soil erosion, and high taxes in southern Italy - all exacerbated by the newly unified government - encouraged Italians in the regions south of Rome and Sicily to leave Italy, at least temporarily. Overpopulation, and the French capture of the wine industry, were also strong incentives for northern Italians to emigrate, and a great number moved to the United States, settling California and other Western states in the "Great Italian Migration", or "The Great Arrival". Other factors, per another source, included decades of internal strife that left a legacy of violence, social chaos, and widespread poverty. 70% of Southern Italians were also illiterate, and Southern Italy was ruled by the Mafia, which later made its way to the United States among Italian immigrants. The King, Umberto I, also spent 10x more on the military than social reforms, including education. Diseases and natural disasters swept through the new Kingdom of Italy, but its fledgling government - along with its King - was in no condition to bring aid to the people. As transatlantic transportation became more affordable, and as word of American prosperity came via returning immigrants and U.S. recruiters, Italians found it increasingly difficult to resist the call of "L'America". While approximately 80% of Italian migrants to the United States were from Southern provinces, 80% of the Italians in California were from the northern regions, including Guccio Gucci's native Tuscany. Men made up 75% of the migrant population, and most left with the intention of sending money back to their families in Italy, and eventually returning to Italy when things had improved. However, conditions in Italy only worsened, leading to much of the country starving. By 1897, the wheat harvest in Italy was substantially lower than the years before; it fell from on average 3.5 million tons in 1891–95 to 2.4 million tons that year. Moreover, import of American grain was more expensive due to the Spanish–American War in 1898. Wheat prices in Milan increased from 225 lire a tonne to 330 lire a tonne in April 1898. Street demonstrations demanding "bread and work" began in the South of Italy, which already had seen widespread revolts by the Fasci Siciliani in 1893–94. In towns like Bari and Naples rioting could be suppressed, while Florence was controlled by demonstrators for a whole day. The situation escalated when demonstrators were shot by nervous policemen, and rioting increased. From the 1880s to the 1890s, Italian exodus from Italy would massively increase. Ellis Island in New York City, in the United States, would see the number of Italian immigrants arriving double from 300,000 to 600,000. By the 1900s, up to 2 million Italians had sought refuge in the United States. Like so many other Italian men of the time period, Guccio Gucci likely left Italy for the same reasons. Florence, which had previously been the capitol of Italy since 1865, had since been usurped in its role by Rome in 1871. While things were better in the North than the South for Tuscans - like young Guccio - thanks to the patronage of the royal House of Savoy, most Italians still lived in poverty. Adding to this, in 1878, King Umberto I of Italy succeeded his father, the late King Victor Emmanuel II, as monarch. However, after a series of disastrous blunders, Umberto was widely seen as a weak, "emasculated", and unpopular Italian king, one who had struggled to even find a royal bride. Due to this, Umberto married his first cousin, Margherita Teresa Giovanna, Princess of Savoy. Amedeo, Umberto's brother, married ultimately a Piedmontese subject, Vittoria of Cisterna. The relationship between Margherita and Umberto was not a success in regards to personal feelings. The two reportedly ceased marital relations just two years after their wedding, and after Margherita gave Umberto a single male child and heir, Crown Prince Victor Emmanuel. When Umberto came to the throne, soon, the new, charming, well-educated, and eloquent Queen Margherita would prove to be more popular than even her husband among the Italian people. In royal circles, King Uberto was particularly widely hated for forcing Queen Margherita to be subjected to his many extramarital affairs, while refusing marital relations with his own wife. King Umberto was also deeply loathed in leftist circles because of his conservatism, and his support of the Bava Beccaris massacre in Milan. He was especially hated by anarchists, who attempted to assassinate him during the first year of his reign. He was killed by another anarchist, Gaetano Bresci, two years after the Bava-Beccaris massacre, in 1900. Nevertheless, Queen Margherita's work was effective. By the 1880s, she had become the center of a personal cult as a popular symbol of the Italian monarchy, and celebrated by poets and authors, as well as by the press, as a symbol of moral reform throughout Italy. However, she also fought a political battle against both republicans and socialists, whom she feared wanted to "get rid of the monarchy". Adding to this, in 1887, Sicilian Francesco Crispi became Prime Minister of Italy. He instituted an unpopular tariff on imported wheat that, over the 1890s, would lead to increasing food shortages. Italy’s largest trading partner was France, and, unhappy with the new tariff, the French retaliated against Italian goods. A “tariff war” between the two countries lasted until 1898. Franco-Italian trade was more than halved, and entire sectors of Italian agriculture, including wine, silk, cattle, and olive oil, collapsed overnight as their markets were cut off. Moreover, the crisis helped to drag down many of Italy’s banks, including one of the largest, the Banca Romana, driving Italy into a country-wide economic recession. However, it was revealed that Banca Romana had given preferential, interest-free loans to many politicians, including Crispi himself, which angered many Italians. The Banca Romana scandal of 1893 was the first of many famous Italian corruption scandals, and, like the others, it discredited the whole political system. This was exacerbated by rising political tensions and violence between the monarchists, republicans, and socialists, including attacks on Queen Margherita's husband. On 22 April 1897, King Umberto I was attacked again, by an unemployed ironsmith, Pietro Acciarito, who tried to stab him near Rome. Particularly, Acciarito's family were in a state of poverty due to Rome's housing construction boom in the 1880s, which the Italian government did nothing to relieve. Acciarito blamed the King for his "do-nothing" approach, advocating that "the government must provide for the poor people". Acciarito had attempted to form his own business; however the depressed economy of the time meant business was low. Thus, Acciarito attempted to assassinate the King. However, he failed, and was imprisoned, leading to redoubled efforts by Queen Margherita to eliminate "enemies of the monarchy". After the attempted assassination, anarchists and socialists were routinely harassed and arrested, particularly those in the Esquilino district, the arrests included the staff of the L'Agitazione (the turmoil), Acciarito's friends who were deemed, accomplices along with a man named Romeo Frezzi. Frezzi was soon found dead after his arrest, which the police claimed was either a suicide or brain aneurysm. However, evidence found in the autopsy report showed he was beaten to death by prison guards. Frezzi soon became mystified, and used as a symbol of an oppressive regime prosecuting and abusing innocents. Protests soon erupted all throughout Italy. Legalization was then proposed to clamp down on the press with greater censorship, and prevent the election of democrats and socialists. From 6-10 May 1898, just months after Acciarito's failed assassination attempt against King Umberto I, widespread riots due to high food prices and wheat shortages erupted in Milan, resulting in the Bava-Beccaris massacre. At least 80 demonstrators were killed, as well as two soldiers, and 450 wounded, according to government sources. The overreaction of the military led to a constitutional crisis, strengthening the opposition against the monarchy. The events of May marked a height of popular discontent with government, the military, and the monarchy in Italy, leading to rumors of civil war. Economic hardship and political corruption at home, together with military failure abroad, provoked riots and uprisings throughout the country. It likely was during this time of turmoil that Guccio Gucci, age 16-17, sought to leave Italy. The very fact that Guccio left undoubtedly indicates that, by that time, the Gucci family was poor, and likely struggled to find work, like many other Italians. Part II: The Savoy Hotel in England As a teenager, sometime in the late 1890s (~1897-1898), we also know that Guccio Gucci somehow ended up travelling from the Florence or Tuscany area to London, England. A look at the migration patterns of the Italian diaspora indicate that Guccio likely initially travelled to France, which bordered Northern Italy. the island of Corsica had passed from the Republic of Genoa to France in 1770, and the area around Nice and Savoy from the Kingdom of Sardinia to France in 1860. Most Italians after WWII would settle in the cities of Lorraine), Paris and Lyon. Initially, Italian immigration to modern France (late 18th to the early 20th centuries) came predominantly from northern Italy (Piedmont, Veneto), then from central Italy (Marche, Umbria), mostly to the bordering southeastern region of Provence. France was also a major trading partner with Northern Italy, including Guccio Gucci's native Florence and Tuscany, exchanging French goods for Italian leather and textiles. One possibility is that Guccio Gucci travelled from Italy to France on the Rome Express via later employer Compagnie Internationale des Wagons-Lits, which ran from Calais-Maritime, a coastal railway station providing a direct connection between cross-channel ferries from England, and the French railway network, via Paris, Aix-les-Bains, Modane, Turin, Genoa, Pisa, and Florence to Rome. Coincidentally, the Savoy Hotel also did job recruiting in France, seeking to build "a little army of hotel men for the conquest of London". The Savoy also particularly sought to hire French cooks and kitchen workers. The founder of the Savoy Hotel, Richard D'Oyly Carte, had also purchased the Grand Hotel in Rome, Italy, in 1894. Guccio eventually found work a a porter, employed to carry luggage and other loads for wealthy patrons, at the Savoy Hotel under hotel managers and Richard D'Oyly Carte - and Englishman - and Swiss businessman César Ritz, who would later found the Ritz Hotel in 1906 ("Puttin' on the Ritz"). The Savoy Hotel - built next to the Savoy Theatre - was unique in its own right, mainly for being the first hotel in Britain to be illuminated by electric lights - provided by Joseph Swan and Thomas Edison, who formed the joint "Edison & Swan" company in 1882 - and the first with electric lifts, invented in Germany by Werner von Siemens in 1880. Inventor Anton Freissler further developed von Siemens' ideas and created a successful elevator enterprise in Austria-Hungary. The safety and speed of electric elevators were significantly enhanced by Frank Sprague, who added floor control, automatic operation, acceleration control, and further safety devices. His elevator ran faster, and with larger loads, than hydraulic or steam elevators. Guestrooms were at the Savoy Hotel were also connected by speaking tubes to various parts of the hotel, including the valet, maid, and floor waiter. The speaking tube supplemented the array of remotely controlled hand bells that were operated in the upstairs rooms, and rang in the servant's quarters in even modest houses in the 19th century. Thomas Edison's earlier invention of the phonograph in 1877, and improved in subsequent years by other inventors, led to the rise of "phonograph parlors". The phenomenon of phonograph parlors peaked in Paris around 1900; in Pathé's luxurious salon, patrons sat in plush upholstered chairs, and chose from among many hundreds of available cylinders by using speaking tubes to communicate with attendants on the floor below. Other innovations at the Savoy Hotel included private, marble, en-suite bathrooms in the majority of its 268 rooms; constant hot and cold running water in each room; glazed brickwork, designed to prevent London's smoke-laden air from spoiling the external walls; and its own artesian well. To a poor Italian young man, like Guccio Gucci, the Savoy Hotel would have been like a "dream come true". Where most of Italy was mired in poverty, the Savoy Hotel was rich in opulence. The Savoy under Ritz and his partners attracted distinguished and wealthy clientele, headed by the Prince of Wales. Aristocratic women, hitherto unaccustomed to dining in public, were now "seen in full regalia in the Savoy dining and supper rooms". The hotel became such a financial success that manager Carte bought other luxury hotels. However, in 1897, Ritz and his partners were fired from the Savoy Hotel by Carte for allegedly stealing over £3,400 (equivalent to £390,000 at 2019) of wine and spirits. The head chef had also been receiving "gifts" from the Savoy's suppliers. However, Ritz alleged that he, and several others, resigned in protest of being accused of the theft.
"By a resolution passed this morning you have been dismissed from the service of the Hotel for, among other serious reasons, gross negligence and breaches of duty and mismanagement. I am also directed to request that you will be good enough to leave the Hotel at once."
Ritz threatened to sue the hotel company for wrongful termination, but was evidently dissuaded by the head chef, who felt that their interests would be better served by keeping the scandal quiet. The next year, Carte engaged M. Joseph, proprietor of the Marivaux Restaurant in Paris, as his new maître d'hôtel, and in 1900, appointed George Reeves-Smith as the next managing director of the Savoy hotel group. It is unclear when Gucci worked for the Savoy Hotel, and for how long. However, given the timeline of events, it is very likely that he was hired around the same time period that Ritz left the Hotel. In 1901 or 1902 - at the age of 20 - Guccio Gucci married Aida Calvelli, a 24-year-old dressmaker and tailor's daughter, and adopted her 2-year-old son, Ugo Calvelli Gucci (1899–1973). In 1902 or 1903, their daughter, Grimalda Gucci, was born; and in 1904, their first son, Enzo, was born. Enzo later died in 1913. Guccio and Aida would go on to have three more children: Grimalda, Vasco, Aldo, and Rodolfo. It is unclear if Ugo, Grimalda, and Enzo were born in Italy, or in England. However, this source says Grimalda was born in Florence in 1903, and Sara Gay Forden states in The House of Gucci that Aldo Gucci was born on 26 May 1905 in Florence. According to this source, Rodolfo Gucci was also born in Florence in 1912. This source, as well as this one, also claim that Guccio and Aida married in Florence, and an Ancestry.com file records Aida as having been born in Florence as well. After leaving employ at the Savoy Hotel, Guccio worked 4 years for the Compagnie des Wagons-Lits ("International Sleeping-Car Company"), the European rail company that specialized in upscale travel leisure and operated the Orient Express and the Rome Express, thus further enhancing his experience with luxurious traveling lifestyles. After WWI (1914-1918), Guccio worked for the maker of fine luggage Franzi. By 1921, Guccio had returned permanently to Florence, Italy - having saved enough money to start his own business - and founded the "House of Gucci" company, specializing in leather products and goods, such as suitcases, luggage, handbags, and other accessories. By this time, the Kingdom of Italy was ruled by King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy, the son of the late King Umberto I and Queen Margherita. However, fascist Benito Mussolini would come to power in 1922, and Italy would be thrown into turmoil for many years to come, after Guccio Gucci's return to Italy. He became one of the ritornati - or, "returners". Guccio's adopted son, Ugo, would also later join the Fascist Party under Mussolini's leadership as a military fighter or soldier, leading his half-brothers, Aldo and Rodolfo, to cut him out of the family after Guccio's death. Guccio later died on 2 January 1953 in Milan, Lombardy, Italy. Part III: Guccio Gucci, the "British Italian" ("Britalian") Despite moving back to Florence, Italy, his final years, Guccio Gucci lived near Rusper, in West Sussex, England. He also learned how to speak English fluently, likely during his time at the Savoy Hotel. England and the UK as a whole, like the United States, also saw more Italian immigration to the country during the WWI and WWII eras, giving rise to the "British Italians". There were also "Welsh Italians" - Italians who settled in Wales - and "Italian Scots", Italians who settled in Scotland. The English towns of Bedford and Hoddesdon have sizeable Italian populations today. A significant number of Italians came to Bedford in the 1950s due to the London Brick Company finding itself short of workers in the wake of the post-war reconstruction boom. As a result, today Bedford has the largest concentration of Italian families in the UK, and the third-highest number of Italian immigrants overall with around one-fifth of its overall population being of Italian descent. In Hoddesdon, many Italians, mostly descending from Sicily, migrated there and across the Lea Valley in the 1950s, due to opportunities working in local garden nurseries. They were drawn to the area by the rich agricultural landscape, and better pay in comparison to back home. Today, the town's Italian community has had such a significant impact that an Italian consul, Carmelo Nicastro, was even elected for the area. As for "Why did Guccio Gucci eventually migrate to England, and not the United States?" There are several possible options for this. The first - being that Guccio Gucci was a poor teenager at the time - simply did not have enough money saved to afford passage to the United States. The second is cultural factors. Guccio Gucci, being a Florentine/Tuscan, and claimed to be from an "artisan" family, distinguished himself from other Italians - particularly Southerners, who were often poor farmers. Southerners migrated to the United States in great droves, and worked for low wages, also making it a lot harder for Guccio Gucci to find good-paying work in that country. According to one source:
This new generation of Italian immigrants [to the United States] was distinctly different in makeup from those that had come before. No longer did the immigrant population consist mostly of Northern Italian artisans and shopkeepers seeking a new market in which to ply their trades. Instead, the vast majority were farmers and laborers looking for a steady source of work—any work. There were a significant number of single men among these immigrants, and many came only to stay a short time. Within five years, between 30 and 50% of this generation of immigrants would return home to Italy, where they were known as ritornati ("returners"). Those who stayed usually remained in close contact with their family in the old country, and worked hard in order to have money to send back home. In 1896, a government commission on Italian immigration estimated that Italian immigrants sent or took home between $4 million and $30 million each year, and that "the marked increase in the wealth of certain sections of Italy can be traced directly to the money earned in the United States".
London had also previously experienced waves of Italian artisan immigration in the earlier 1800s from Como, Lombardy, Italy, the home of the Italian silk trade and production; and Lucca, Tuscany, Italy. Today, Lucca is located about a 1-hour (60-minute) drive from Florence, with Como located north of Milan. The Napoleonic wars left northern Italy with a destroyed agriculture and consequently many farmers were forced to emigrate. A few thousand moved to the British isles in the first half of the 1800s.
"From the 1820s to 1851...accounts for 4000 Italian immigrants in England, with 50% of them living in London. The regional origins of most were the valleys around Como, and Lucca. The people from Como were skilled artisans, making barometers and other precision instruments. People from Lucca specialized in plaster figure making. By the 1870s the main regional origins of Italian emigration to Britain were the valleys of Parma in the north, and the Liri valley, half way between Rome and Naples. A railway network had been started by this time, and this helped the people from the Liri valley to migrate to the North of Italy, and then on to Britain. The people from Parma were predominantly organ grinders, while the Neapolitans from the Liri valley (now under Lazio) made ice cream...the occupational structure of the immigrants, up to the 1870s, remained "substantially the same." After this date, all itinerant employment crossed regional demarcations...The centre of the Italian community in Britain throughout the 19th Century, and indeed to the present day, is 'Little Italy' situated in a part of London called Clerkenwell...description of its existence then, from an 1854 print, is of a "warren of streets around Hatton Garden." Dickens' Oliver Twist and Gustave Dore's prints of London at that time fill in the images. As numbers increased, and competition grew fiercer, so Italians spread to the north of England, Wales and Scotland. They were never in great numbers in the northern cities. For example, the Italian Consul General in Liverpool, in 1891, is quoted as saying that the majority of the 80–100 Italians in the city were organ grinders and street sellers of ice-cream and plaster statues. And that the 500–600 Italians in Manchester included mostly Terrazzo specialists, plasterers and modellers working on the prestigious, new town hall. While in Sheffield 100–150 Italians made cutlery.....of the 1000 or so Italians in Wales at the end of the 19th century a third of them worked as seamen on British ships, a third worked in jobs that serviced shipping, such as ships chandlers, seamen's lodgings etc., and most of the rest worked in the coal mines. In 1861,....there were 119 Italians in Scotland, the majority of them in Glasgow. By 1901, the Italian population was 4051. By this time, the Italian communities were becoming more affluent. The Italian Scottish community was "…almost all engaged in small food shops – either ice cream shops or fish restaurants."
Giuseppe Mazzini lived in London for some years, and promoted the construction of the Italian church of St. Peter in the "Little Italy" of Clerkenwell (a London neighbourhood). The Italian-style basilica was inaugurated in 1863, and was the main place of reunion for the growing Italian community of London. By the time WWI started in 1914, the Italian community was well established in London, and other areas of the British isles. There were nearly 20,000 Italians in the United Kingdom in 1915. However, all Italian-born subjects living in Britain at the time of WW1 - 1915 - were regarded as "aliens", and forced to register with their local police station. Permission also had to be given by the police if a person wanted to travel more than 5 miles from their homes. This, combined with Guccio Gucci's Florentine pride; British anti-Italian sentiments; and his likely unwillingness to assimilate into English society and culture, likely caused him to move himself, his wife Aida, and son Ugo back to Florence, after Guccio had saved some money from working at the Savoy Hotel and other companies. It was in Florence where Guccio and Aida also had more children. Conclusion: Evidence supports Grimalda Gucci's claim. Even when researching this piece, it became quickly apparent that, due to even the Guccis themselves not knowing much about their family history - or, in the case of Aldo Gucci, as per Grimalda Gucci, actively fabricating or lying about their family origins to seen more "noble" and "grand" - there are many different sources, who say many different things. Even some of these sources contradicted other sources, particularly when it came to timeline claims. For example, one source claims that Guccio Gucci worked at the Savoy Hotel in London "in the early 1900s", even though others claim he had returned to Florence by 1901. There are also little-to-no, or very sparse - if any - details about Guccio Gucci's employment at the Savoy Hotel. Given the time period, the records obviously probably no longer exist - if they ever did - and, thus, providing exact details on when Guccio Gucci worked at the Savoy Hotel is nearly impossible. Thus, it is very likely that Grimalda Gucci was reporting on what Guccio Gucci, in turn, told her growing up. How does this all pertain to Maurizio Gucci, Adam Driver's character? For one, as Guccio Cucci reportedly worked for three different companies - all in different industries, being hotels/hospitality, rail/transportation, and fashion/design accessories, respectively - I think it ultimately goes to show that, perhaps, Maurizio Gucci was simply not suited for the leather goods business that Guccio Gucci originally envisioned. This may explain part of why Maurizio was not only bad at his job as the head of Gucci, but also why he resisted efforts for years for his father, Rodolfo, to groom him as the Gucci heir. His heart was simply drawn to other craft fields and industries outside of the fashion industry, such as ship-building and restoration. For example, in Sara Gay Forden's The House of Gucci, third-party sources testified that Maurizio loved sailing and sailboats; and, today, his two daughters, Alessandra and Allegra Gucci, rent out his restored ship, The Creole. Maurizio specifically sank millions into refurbishing The Creole, and turning into her a top-of-the-line luxury yacht. Perhaps, in today's world, such work might be featured on shows like "American Restoration" on the History Channel, which focuses on a company that takes custom restoration commissions - but, in Maurizio's case, from a European perspective. (My own grandfather styled himself as a "custom designer and woodcrafter" for upscale projects and clients, working on crafting, repairing, and restoring cabinets and woodwork.) Today, Maurizio's two daughters, Alessandra and Allegra, also continue to work on sailboats and yachts. We also see this phenomenon with the other Guccis as well. For example, Paolo Gucci, the son of Aldo Gucci, made an ill-fated attempt to get into the Arabian horse breeding and show world, even taking on his stable hand - Penny Armstrong - as his mistress. Other members of the Gucci family, such as Giorgio Gucci, was also a horse breeder, art collector, and more; and Uberto Gucci, who also is forging his own path of creativity. According to the Gucci family's obituary statement in regards to Giorgio Gucci:
He was “a fundamental member of a family that has carried the flag of Italian fashion and style abroad, especially because at an early age, he already gave clear signs that his thing was design and the creative part, rather than the administrative one” adds the statement written by his family.
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